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Garnet ( January Birthstone )

Garnet is the birthstone for january and the gem for the 2nd anniversary. Some believe the true value of garnet birthstone is, its power to bring the wearer good health, wealth, and happiness. Garnets belong to a group of over 20 closely-related minerals with the same chrystal structure but slightly different chemical composition. It includes five garnet species that are commercially important as gems. Those five are pyrope,almandine, spessartine, grossular, and andradite. A sixth, uvarovite green garnet. 

1) Pyrope and almandine: Most red garnets on the market are mixtures of pyrope and almandine. Pyrope is almost always red to very slightly brownish red and almandine is typically red to brownish red or purple red. Only differ in their chemistry,silicon, oxygen, and aluminium found in both, pyrope contains magnesium and almandine contains iron. Rhodolite garnet is mixture of pyrope and almandine. Sources: Rhodolite:-Umba river, Tanzania,Madagascar,Brazil,Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. Red garnet:- Mozambique, Thailand, Madagacar, Brazil, and Arizona, USA.

2) Spessartine: Spessartine garnet is a nesosilicate, manganese,and aluminium garnet species, vibrant orange color component. It's named after the Spessart district of Bavaria, Germany. Where,it was first discivered. Mandarin Garnet, in the 1990, vibrant orange spessartine from new sources in Namibia and Nigeria as " Mandarin" garnet a reference to the gems. Sources: Namibia, Nigeria, Madagascar, India,and Sri Lanka. 

3) Pyrope-spessartine: Color change garnet and malaya garnet are mixtures of pyrope and spessartine. Color change garnet, that show a distinct color change from green to bluish green in day (or fluorescent) light and red to reddish purple in incandescent light, that contains vanadium. Malaya garnet, malaya comes from a Swahili word that means " out of family" or "outcast". Slightly pinkish orange,reddish orange garnet. Sources: Tanzania's Umba River Valley, Kenya and Sri Lanka. 

4) Grossular: Grossular garnet is a calcium-aluminium species of the garnet. Garnet occurs in a diversity of colors, including tones of orange' yellow, and green, Hessonite and tsavorite are grossular species of garnet. Sources: Kenya,Tanzania, Madagascar,Brazil, India and Sri Lanka. 

5) Andradite: Andradite is a nesosilicate mineral species of the garnet group. There are three varieties have been recognized by gemologists: demantoid, melanite, and topazolite. 
 Demantoid Garnet: A rare gem with vivid yellowish green color variety of andradite and higher dispersion than diamond. It was first discovered by gold and platinum miners in Russia"s Ural Mountains in mid 1800s. Russian demantoid are curving, radiating       bundles of fibers known as " horsetails" inclusion. Sources: Russia, Namibia and Pakistan.
 Melanite garnet: A opaque black color garnet contains titanium oxide. Sources: Russia and Mali, Africa.
Topazolite garnet:Yellow to yellow- brown or golden brown color garnet. Sources: Mexico, Namibia,and Madagascar.
  • Mineral: Garnet group
  • Chemistry:
  • Almandine- Fe3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Andradite- Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3
  • Grossular- Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Pyrope- Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Rhodolite- (Mg, Fe)3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Spessartine- Mn3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Color: All colors
  • Refractive index: 1.714-1.888
  • Birefringence: None
  • Specific gravity: 3.47-4.15
  •  Mohs harness: 6.5-7.5 on the Mohs scale. 
  • Stability: Garnets are stable to light and chemicals. They can be attacked by hydrofluoric acid.
    Cleaning: Warm soapy water is always safe for cleaning garnets. The ultrasonic cleaner is usually safe except for stones that have fractures. Steam cleaning is not recommended. 
  • TreatmentGarnets might rarely be treated by fracture filling.
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